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`mKw: 2

dnmUv tUmnkns `qanbnse Ghpw almb Zriyhnkvabw: ]cnWmans sXfnhpI F ]pkvXIw hnebncpsSpp.

""a\pjyhwis kw_n KthjWn Adnbs BZys "a\pjy' \nbmmImc\mWv''(29) a\pjyNcn{Xn Hma \nbmmmc\msWv ]dbpXv aebmfn bpnhmZnIfpsS "]mT]pkvXIhpw, ASnm\{Khp'amb bpnZi\amWv.(30) \nbmm a\pjy PohnXv aqcew apX Bdv ew hjġv apmbncppshmWv(31) hon]oUnb ]cntim[nm a\nemhpI.

Bdv ew hjw {]mbapv \psS {]]nXmals\ AhImihmZnse icnsXpI hniIe\w sNm\ \nbmm a\pjys\ ChnsS sImphXv. tUmnkns ]pkvXIns cmw A[ymbns BZy`mKw N sNpXv ]cnWma aXspdnpw hnizmkspdnpw Umhn\papv FvsImv Bcpw Nnnm Xmdmbn FXmWv. Atlw XpSpXns\.

""Umhn cwKsm FvsImmWv C{Xbpw sshInbXv? Atlns cp XeapdIġv apv sFkv \yq cq]w \Inb KWnX knm cv kl{km_vZw apv BsaUokv AhXcnn ]p BibChsbmsfms Zo]vXhpw efnXhpamb Hcp Bibntev FntcpXn\npw a\pjycminsb A{XbpwImew XSp\ndpnbXv FmWv?''(32)

a\pjyNcn{Xn\v \Inb Bdv ew hjġnSbn\mKcnIX a\pjys Ncn{Xnv Xs Ggmbnctmftam AXne[nItam hjfpsS {]mbapvtIhew 153 hjw apv hsc Hcmġpw ]cnWmasa Bibw tXmnbn FXv bmZrnIa. AXpt]mse Umhn\v ]cnWmasa Bibw tXmnbXpw bmZrnIamhm hgnbn. a\pjyss\kKnIXbn Acw Bibġv m\an FXv XsbmWv C{X hnimeamb Imebfhn t]mepw a\pjy\v Ccsamcp Nn hcmXncnm ImcWambncnpI. tUmnkv ]dbpXv Umhn\papv Ccw Bib Bcpw ]dbmXncnm ImcWw (Umhn\papv emamnb NnI DmbncppshXpw B NnIfpsS kzm[o\amWv Umhns HdnPn Hm^v kv]ojnkntev \bnXv Fpap Imcyw adpn. tUmnkv AmcyanhnsS kqNnnmXncnpXv sImpXs AXntev N \otXn). {Kov XzNnI ttmbpsS kmhmZns kzm[o\amWv Ncn{Xn Hcp Umhn DbphcmXncnm ImcWambn ]dbpXv.

tUmnkv \h Umhn\nkns Ipe]Xnbmbncp GWv sabdns\ Dcnv ]dbpp: ""Atlns A`n{]mbn kmhmZw AYhm Fʳjyenkw Fp \mw hnfnp {]mNo\ XzNnm ]Xnbmbncpp Cmcyn apJy{]Xn_ambn \nesImXv. ]cnWmaw Ip]nSnpXv ttmbpsS arXIcfm XSbsSpIbmbnbpcpp''(33) XpSv ttmbpsS kmhmZsas hniZoIcWntev t]mIpp. `qanbnse apbepI bYmY apbepIfspw bYmY BImi apbens tIhe ]XnpIfmWv `qanbnse apbepIsfpw apap ttmWnb hmZsfsv \ncpp. Acw hmZaph Cn FXvsImpXs B N A\mhiyamWv. AXpsImpXs \apXhKWnmw.

]s ]cnWmasa Bibw ttmbpsS kmhmZw XSp F tUmnknsbpw sabdnsbpw AhImihmZw bmsXmcSnm\hpanm anYymhmZamWv. ttmbpsS ImeLw _n.kn 423348 BsWv hnn]oUnb ]dbpp.(34) {Kon Pohnncp ttmbpsS appXs temIns hyXykvX `mKfn CuPn]vXv, saksmtanb, bq{^okv, ssS{Knkv(35), CUkv hmen(36) bqtdm]y kwkvImc(37) \ne\nncpp. am{Xa ttmbpsS ImeLn\ptijhpw ttmbpsS Bibfdnbm kwkvImcfpw P\hn`mKfpw `qanbpsS hyXykvX `mKfn Pohnncpp. Aqn bpnhmZ hoW{]Imcw tIhe\ncoizcne[njvTnXamb Zmi\nINnIfpw \ne\nncpp.
`mcXob Zmi\nIXsb kw_np IayqWnv bpnhmZ hoWw Ah `uXnIhmZne[njvTnXhpw \ncoizchmZ]chpambncpp FXmWv. Ccw ]T\fmWv Un.Un tImkmw_n, ]n. ZmtamZc XpSnbhcpsS `mcXob Zi\sfpdnp ]T\.

Cmcyw bpnhmZ ASnm\{]amWamb bpnZi\hpw hyamppv. ""Cy Zmi\nI ]mccyn Hcp sNdnb \yq\]ns\mgnsI kzw Zi\ns \ne]mSpIsf hniZoIcnpXn\v Cuizcs Bhiyw A\nhmcyambn. Cu khntijX {]tXyIw {instSXmWv. GsXmcp `uXnIhmZnsbpw ap D]m[nbmWv \ncoizc k]w. \ncoizc Zi\n A[njvTnXamb {]mNo\`mcXnse apgph Zmi\nI[mcIfpw `uXnIXbn NphSp]nSnpsImmWv hnImkw {]m]nXv Fp ]dbmw. BkIew `uXnI Nnm[mcsbv {]knamb temImbX Zi\w am{Xa kmwJyw, \ymbw, sshtijnIw, aoamwk, ssP\w, _uw Fnhsbmw Cu Iqn DsSpp. C{]Imcw BsIbp {][m\s HXp Cy Zmi\nI ]XnIfn Ggpw ]qWambn Cuizcs\ \ntj[npsImv `uXnIXtbmSv Iqdp {]Jym]npshn BXynIXen AssZzX thZmhpw Cuizcs\ \ncmIcnncnpp.''(38)

Cu {]kvXmh\bnse AXnitbmn AhKWnp bpnZi\ teJIs hmpI apJhnesSpv tUmnknsbpw tabdpsSbpw AhImihmZ hniIe\w sNbvXm ttmbpsS kmhmZn\v a\pjyIpes samn kzm[o\nm Ignn Fv hyamhpw. AXpsImpXs ]cnWmaNnsb BibhmZw XSp F `mh\ A]w AXncpIS A[nI{]kwKamsWv t_m[ysSpw.

bYmYn, ]cnWmak]w a\pjys _pnpw bpnpw tbmPnpn FXmWv hkvXpX. Bdp ew (?!) hjs a\pjyNcn{Xn tIhew 153 hjns hnesb{XbmWv. \mKcnI a\pjys 7000n IqSpX hjs Ncn{Xn 153 hjs m\samWv? Ncn{XnsehnsSbpw a\pjy\v `mh\bn t]mepw ImWm Ignbm, `uXnIXbpsS AXn{]kcn \ncq]nsSp k]w am{XamWv ]cnWmahnizmkw. apv kqNnnt]mse ]cnWmaw AsXmcp hnizmkambn \ne\ns. ]s AXns\ imkv{Xobambn sXfnbnpw F hop ]dnepw AXv imkv{XamsW AhImihmZhpw AwKoIcnm Ignbn.

]cnWmaw Ncn{XnsehnsSbpw Bscbpw kzm[o\nn Fp tUmnkpw tabdpw {]kvXmhnp. AXnt\mSv bpnZi\ns BZyt]Pnse shfnsSpepw tNv hmbntXpv.

""a\pjyhwis kw_n KthjWn Adnbs BZys a\pjy "\nbmXm'Imc\mWv. 1856 Pa\nbnse \nbm Xmgvhcbn\nv IpInnb AhinjvSfmWv Cu t]cns ImcWw.

Cbm KplIfnse h\yarKsf, hntijnv IcSnIsf sImXmbpw KplI Xmakn\mbn kzoIcnXmbpw IcpXpp. Cs\ h[nm\nSbmb IcSnIfpsS XetbmSpI KplIġIv Hcp {]tXyI coXnbn ASpnshncpphs{X.

acnhsc ImappI aSn Ccp \nebn Kplbn adhpsNbvXXmbn shfnsnpv. CXv Fsnepw hnizmkns ^eamtWm? hya. Cs kam[n kwkvImcw CXnt\mSv GXmv ASpp\npXmbn tXmpp.

IcSnbpsS XetbmSpI kqnphXnepw Fsnepw hnizmkns \ndaptm? AtXm Xs hoc]cm{IafpsS kvacWbmbn kqntXm?

~Hcp {]tXyI C\nep arKfpsS XetbmSpI am{Xw kqnphm Abmsf t{]cnnsXmWv?''(39)

a\pjyNcn{Xnse alm`qcn] ImeLnepw ]cnWmaspdntm AXmsbn kzbw`q Xzspdntm Bcpw Nnnncpn Fn, BZya\pjy Ahs Hmw XobXn apX ]ctemIhnizmknbmbncpp Fp hnfnp]dbpp bpnhmZn Zmi\nI\mbncp Fw. _n.sIbpsS Cu {]Jym]\w.

AsX a\pjy Fpw ssZhacWm\c hnizmknbmbncpp; BbncnpIbpw sNpw. AXhs ss\kKnIXbpsS `mKamWv. a\nsbpw _pnbpsSbpw bpnbpsSbpw tXamWv.

Cmcyw tUmnkpw hyamppv. Xs Gsd {]ikvXamb Zn tKmUv sUeyqj F IrXnbn\mw N sNp "`qanbnse Ghpw almb Zriyhnkvabw ]cnWmans sXfnhpI' F Cu ]pkvXIns apIh t]Pn tUmnkns\ ]cnNbsSppXv Zn tKmUv sUeyqj F hnJymX IrXnbpsS Imhv FmWv. tUmnkv ]dbpp.

""krjvSnhmZtmSv klPamb B`napJyw tXmp coXnbnemWv (Innately predisposed to creationism) a\pjycpsS Xetm {]hnpsXmWv qans A`n{]mbw. AXmbXv "Fmw Btcm Dmnhp' Fv k]nm\p ssZzXt_m[amWv an a\pjypapXv. AssZzX hmZnIfn t]mepw Cu `mh\ iamWv.''(40) Xs B {Kٯn 28mw A[ymbn\v tUmnkv \Inb Xesv Xs "aXhnizmks XpWp am\knI LS\' FmWv. B A[ymbn {]apJ a\ximkv{Xڳ t]m qans\ A[nIcnv ]d hmNIamWv \mw hmbnXv.thsdbpapv Ccw {]kvXmh\I.

""IpnIfpsS a\n klPamb Hcp ssZzX`mhapsv Atlw (qw) ]dbpp. cmbn ImWm\p a\pjya\ns kzm`mhnI XzcbmWv ssZzX`mhw (Dualism) FXvsImv Atlw AYampXv. aXw Acw ssZzX`mhn\nmWv cq]wsImpXv.''(41) AsX ssZhaX hnizmkhpw ssZhkrjvSn hnizmkhpw a\pjys klPhpw ss\kKnIhpamb tNmZ\bpw tXhpamWv. Fm ]cnWmahnizmkhpw \ncoizc hnizmkhpw a\pjyss\kKnIXpw klPhpamb tNmZ\pw Bmhns tXn\psaXncpw. Fnpsat tUmnkpw ]cnWma \ncoizc hnizmknIfpw AXn hnizknpIbpw {]NcnnpIbpw sNbvXpsImncnpp.

AXvIqSn tUmnkn\np Xs ]TnpXv auenIambncnpw. ""BZyw kzbw hnm aphsc hnm Ffpambncnpw. t_m[a\n\nv kXys AIn\nnbm aphtcmSv Iw ]dbptm DmIm\nSbp hnjaXI Hgnhmmw. km[mcW a\pjyv \pW ]dbptm IpNnpI, ssIew \\bpI, lrZbanSnv IqSpI XpSnb imcocnI AkzXIfpmImdptm. kXyadnbpXv a\x]qhw Hgnhmnbm Ccw _pnappI Xms\ A{]Xyambnsmpw.''(42)

ssZhw krjvSnp \nb{np hfnsmphcpp F hnizmkw a\pjyklPamsWpw ss\kKnIamsWpw \mw Ip. B ss\kKnI KpWs \ntj[nm kzw a\ns\ ]oUnnpw Bh\ \SnbpamWv \ncoizc, ]cnWma hnizmkw AXns hm DsmpXv. As\ Bh\ \Snbm Acw Ifhv Xs klPohnItfmSv ]dbpXnt\m {]NcnnpXnt\m a\mnptm am\knI imcocnI ]ncnapdptam Acmpmhn. AhcpsS _pnpw a\n\pw kXyw Dsmm Ignbm coXnbn ap{Zhncnpw.

tUmnkv Xs ]pkvXIn ]cnWma hnizmkn\v sXfnhpI \ncm Bcw`nnpv. cmw A[ymbn AXn\tlw Hcp ]coWw AhXcnnpp. ""Fm arKfntepw Cu Ne \ofpp. Ccn XnIpw Acnp Hcp ^ew ]cnWman A[njvTnXamb temIhoWn\nv am{Xta DcpncnbpIbpp Fv Rm \n_nm\p ImcWw \nġv t_m[ysnpmhpw. Fmbmepw Rm\Xn\v Hcp t]cp sImSppIbmWv. "slb ]n Nn F ]coWw' (The hairpin thought experiment)''(43)

Cu ]coWns t]cv kqNnnpXpt]mse tIhew Nnm(`mh\m)]camb ]coWw am{XamWv. apv tI Hcp ]gsmv km`nIamWv. "Gnse ]ip ]ppXnn' AXpt]mse tUmnkns am\knI hym]mc Hpw sXfnbnn. (tUmInkns\ BZy`mKv ]cnNbsXv admXncnpI)

FmWv Cu ]coWns ImX FpIqSn a\nemmw. GsXnepw Pohnncnp Hcp Pohn, AXns apKman, AXns sXmpaps apKman... Ans\ Ipsd aptmpt]mbm Cp Pohnncnp Pohnbn\npw hfsctbsd hyXymksncnm km[yXbpv. Hcp ]s B apKman Cv Pohnncnp PohnhKw Xs Bbncnm km[yXbn Fns\ t]mIp hniZoIcWw...

""XnI Ah[m\XtbmSpIqSn {Iaambn ]ntmpkcnm ]noStmv ImWsSp PohnIġv BZys apbepambp kmayw {ItaW IpdphcpXmbpw jvdqhpambp (Shrew) kmayw (icnpw jvdq BsWv IcpXcpXv) h[nphcpXpw A\p`hsSpw. s]IpnI XeapSn HXpnshm D]tbmKnp Hcp slb]nns (hairpin) BIrXnbnembncnpw. Cu ]cnWma{Iaw hn\yknsSpXv. AXmbXv Cwojv Acw "U' XeXncnn BIrXnbn. Nne {]ISamb khntijXIfpsS ASnm\n Cu slb]n hnXcW{Ianse Hcp Pohn IrXyambn slb]nns hfhnemWpsXv (bend) Rm ]dbpw. Cu Pohn apbepIġpw ]pnpenIġpw ASpnsSbpmbncp Hcp s]mXp]qhnI\mIpp. (icnpw ]dm A hgnbn. ]s hgnv {]tXyInv {]m[m\ysampw sImSptXn) B Pohn IrXyambpw Fs\bmbncpp Fv \apdnbn. AsXmbmepw ]cnWma]cambn Nnnm As\sbmcp Pohn DmbncntXpv. Fm PohnIsfbpw t]mse AXpw Xs amXmhns\bpw aIsfbpw t]mse kzw hKnse (Species) HcwKs t]msebmhpw PohnnpmhpI.''(44)

Cu ]mc{Km^v slb]n FIvkvs]cnsans cq]w GItZiw hyampp. CXnsehnsSbpw ]coWan. tUmnkv Hmw A[ymbn AhImis t]mse Cu ]coWn\p \S]Sn{Ia "]cnWmamX _m[n tcmKmXpc a\ns A\pam\fpw Dulfpw am{Xw. Cu slb ]n ]coWspdnv tUmnkv hniZambn N sNppv. AsXmw tIhew Dulm[njvTnXw am{XamWv. kzw `mh\bn hncnbp k]ġv imkv{Xsa t]cnmcm[np ]cnWma hnizmknbmb tUmnkv XpScpp.

""]ntmp Cu `mh\m kmcw \apv XpScmw. \Sp \Sp slb ]nns hfhpw ]nnm ]noSv t]mIpXv aptmmWv. AXmbXv ]pnpenbntev (slb]nn\npw hyXykvX kz`mhLS\bp PohnIfpsS \nch[n imJI DS\ofw s]mnapfppmIpw. CXnse Hcp imJbn \nmbncnpw ]pnpen ]cnWannpmbXv.'' ""slb]nns hfhneq Xpc PohnbpsS ]p{XnamscbmWv ]noSv \mw ImWpI. kmh[m\w AsX kabw s]sv {Klnm\mhm coXnbn B Xpc Pohn sas ]cnWanpp. B am \nch[n a[ycq] PohnI hgnbmbncnpw. Ccw a[ycq]sms ]ckv]cw \ kmayapmbncnpw. Fp IcpXn, Ahbv Cp \mw ImWp GsXnepw Pohnbpambnv kmayapmIWsan. GItZiw sNocnsbt]mse tXmp a[ycq]fneqsSbmhpw ChnsS \psS {]bmWw. Cu kmcn\nSbn A{]XonX {ZpXhyXnbm\sfmpw DmImsX Xs, GsXnepsamcp Ln {insSm hn[w {Iahpw kqvahpamb ]cnWmaw hgn \mw ]pnpenbn Fntcpw.''(45)

Cu DcWnbpw Hcp ]mc{Km^v ]qWambn tNXmWv. ]cnWmaw sXfnbnpw Fv \qsmmhnpsImncnp tUmnkns ]pkvXInse sXfnbnens hyamb cq]amWv \mw ChnsS IXv.

BZy`mKv imkv{Xns hyXykvX \nhN\ a\nemnbncpp. Ahbn hyhpw kv]jvShpamb hniZoIcWw sI. ssh. Fkv kwm\ {]knUv bp. Iem\mYtXmWv. Atlw hniZoIcn t]mse Btdgv ]ShpIfp imkv{Xob coXnbn Hcp Ahbnepw `mh\mhnemkġpw Duln\pw bmsXmcp m\hpan. ]s tUmnkns ]pkvXIn Gdnb Iqdpw t\cs {]Jym]nXv t]mse Atlns Dulm[njvTnXpw `mh\m]qWhpamb A\pam\fneqsSbmWv ]cnWmaw imkv{Xobambn sXfnbnpXv(?!)
`mh\m]qWamb kbkv ^nIvj\mWv tUmnkv AhXcnnpXv Fn AXv hmb\mcs\ k] temItv B\bnv BkzmZ\ns sImSpapSnbn Fnts\. kbkv ^nIvj\v ]Icw atsXmcp kmlnXy ^nIvj\mbmepw AXpw hmb\m BkzZnpw. ChnsS ^nIvj FhImisSm, imkv{Xsapw sXfnhpspw AhImisSp, `mh\mhnemk AhXcnnpIbmWv ]pkvXIne[nI `mKhpw. tUmnkv Xs ]pkvXIn sXfnhpI kaYnpIbmbn. BZyambn AhXcnn sXfnhv Umhns\ Xs knm cq]oIcWntev \bn hfpPohnIfn Krl ]cn]me\neqsS hcp amhpw ImjnI KthjWfneqsS kkyfn hcp amhpamWv. Cu hnjbw ]pkvXIn Fgp]nbn IqSpX t]PpIfn hniZoIcnnpv. Ahtbmtcmpw ]cntim[nstSXn. Fnepw A]w N sNmsX AhKWnpXv \oXnb.

Cu `mKfpsS XpSans\ ""arKfpsSbpw kkyfpsSbpw {]P\\s]n Umhn\v \ m\apmbncpp. {]mhv Imcpambpw tlmn IĨdnpIfpambpw khntij _w kqnncp Atln\v \mbIsf Gsd CjvShpambncpp. HdnPn Hm^v kv]ojnkns {]Ya A[ymbw hfparKfnepw kkyfnepap `n PmXnIsf Ipdnmbncppshv am{Xa B hnjbs ]n ]noSv Hcp ]pkvXIw Xs cNnnpapv. "a\pjy ]cn]me\w aqew arKġpw kkyġpw kw`hnp sshPmXy' (The variations of animals and plants under domestication) F ]pkvXIn \mbbpw ]qbpw, IpXncbpw IgpXbpw, ]nI, IpImenI, BSpI, apbepI, {]mhpI, tImgnpp, IuXpIapWp Imt_Pns\ t]msebp sNSnI, hnhn[bn\w ]dhI, Nne kky Fnhsbpdnsms {]tXyIw A[ymb Xs B ]pkvXInepv.''(46)

Umhns\ Krl]cn]me\w Xs knm cq]oIcWn F{Xam{Xw kzm[o\nncp Fv CXn\nv hyamhpw. AtX Bibw tUmnkns\bpw Gsd Bthiw sImnppv. AXv sImmWv Cmcyw C{X hniZambn tUmnkv N sNpXv.

tUmnkv XpSsgpXpp ""kmhmZn\pw PohnhKfpsS ncXmhmZn\pw FXnscbp Bib]camb ISm{IaWn\v Gsd klmbIamb Hcp ]dn C\amWv Imt_PpI.''(47) tUmnkns Bthiw hyamWv. Xs `uXnI aXhnizmks Bib]cambn tNmZyw sNp ssZh hnizmks BSnm Zp_eamb Imt_Pp thcpIfpw Xpw D]tbmKnmw F (A)ip`m]vXn hnizmkamWXv.

XpScpp: ""Imp Imt_Pv {_kom Hetdjy (Brassica oleracia) F t]cnednbsSpp. Cv \apv ]cnNnXamb Imt_Ppambn Xnpt\mnbm ImpImt_Pns\ XncndnbpI A{X Ffpamhn. \apv ]cnNnXamb Imt_Pns Hcp "If ]Xnv' (Weedy version) Fp thWsan AXns\ hnfnmw. GXm\pw \qmpIsImv kc {]P\\ns ]Wnbmbp[fpsS klmbtmsS tlmnIĨdnpI ]db {]tXyIXsbmpanm Cu ImpsNSnsb Hmcw ]dnbmn ]cphsSpnsbSppIbmbncpp... ]ckv]c sshPmXyap \nch[n C\sfbmWv B ]qhnI\n\npw tlmnIĨdnpI krjvSnsSppXv.

asmcp ]cnNnX DZmlcWw sNmbvfpsS ]cphsSpemWv. Im\nkv epkv (Canis lupus) FdnbsSp ImpsNmbbn\npw Cv {_nojv sI _v hyXncn C\fmbn AwKoIcnnp Canis familiaris F hn`mKns] Ccpqdne[nIw C\fmWv Ir{Xna {]P\\neqsS a\pjy krjvSnsSpnpXv.''(48)

Cu hnjbn C{Xbpw ZoLamb apJhpc FgpXm tUmnkns\ t{]cnnXv hnjbn tUmnkn\p AanXmhnizmkamWv. XpSv tUmnkv Krl]cn]me\neqsS Irjnbnepw hfpPpfnepw \Sp \nch[n DZmlcW ]dbppv. B DZmlcW hnhcn tijw Cs\bp amsSpepI {]IrXn kzbw sNpsapw AXneqsS ]pXnb Pp kky hK cq]sSpsapw A\pam\npp. Atlnsbpw UmhnsbpaSw Acw A\pam\ ]cnWmahnizmkn\p sXfnhmbn AhXcnnpIbpw sNpp.

tUmnkv hniZoIcnpp ""sUmantj\v h\yarKfn Dmm Ignbp sRnnp tXmXnep cq] kz`mh hyXnbm\fmWv Rm\nhnsS {][m\ambpw ]dbm\ptinpXv. F{X thKnemWv AXv arKsf amn adnpsXv \s Acnpw. kc {]P\\ hnZKv[ ({_oUam) Ifnan tamUepI Dmphsc t]msetbm In IpXnc, \mb, ]q, ]ip, Imt_Pv... XpSn XġnjvSs Nn{X Dfn sImv sImnbpmphsc t]msetbm BWv. Cu hmMvab Nn{Xntev Rm\pSs\ Xncnphcmw. CXn\v {]IrXym \Sp ]cnWmahpambp _sasm ChnsS sXcsSpv \SpXv a\pjy\mWv adnv {]IrXnb FpXmWv. Fnepw \Sp {]{Inb Gsdpsd HpXs. AXpsImv XsbmWv sUmantj\v Umhn HdnPn Hm^v kv]ojokns XpSn henb {]m[m\yw \InbXv. Ir{Xna \n[mcWneqsS kw`hnp ]cnWmaw Bpw a\nemIp HmWv. {]IrXn \n[mcWhpw As\ Xs.''(49)

Ir{Xna ke\neqsS kcbn\w hfparKsf DXv]mZnnp coXnbn {]IrXnbnepw aney IWn\v hjsfSpv am kw`hntmw F A\pam\neqsSbmWv Umhn Xs knmw cq]oIcnXv. Cv tUmnkpw AsX A`n{]mbn XsbmWv.

tUmnkv {]kvXmhnpp. ""\mb ]cn]me\n \npw icnpw \msamWv ]TnpXv? HmaXmbn, kcbn\w \mbIfnse \smcp iXam\nepw, t{Kv sUbn apX tbmnI hsckvtImnI apX Fb sUbnepI hsc dnUvPv _mIvkv apX Umjv lpI hsc, hnpI apX skv s_WmUv hsc, \nbXamb sXcsSppIfneqsS Po ]q IS kv^pSw sNbvXpw icoc LS\bnepw s]cpam coXnbnepw \mSIob am Dmm A\mbmkw km[npsav Imncpp. AXnibsav ]dbs, GXm\pw Nne Po\pI am{Xsa Dsnppshnepw Dmp amw Xopw \mSIobamWv. AXnthKnepw GXm\pw \qmpIf adnv ZieWn\v hj thn hnpmhmw Fp tXmnnp hn[w \mSIobamWv Cu am. C{Xb[nIw ]cnWmaam GXm\pw ZiIfntem \qmpIfntem kw`hnmsan ]tm \qtdm Ziew hj sImv kw`hnm\nSbp amsf ]n HmtemNnp t\mq.''(50)

{]IrXnbn Hcp Pohntbm PohnhKtam asmcp PohnhKambn amdnbXnv Asn ]cnWanXn\v hyhpw kv]jvShpw hkvXp\njvTamb sXfnthXpw e`yamXv sImv XmcXay ]T\ ktXap]tbmKnv ]cnWman\v sXfnhpsv tXmnnm\p {iaamWnXv. ssPh kky temIs Krl]cn]me\n\v \nch[n DZmlcW ]pkvXIn \ncppv. Ahbn NneXv ]cnNbsSpXn\v apv tUmnkv Gsd Bthi]qhw AhXcnn Krl]cn]me\w hnebncpn aptmpt]mImw.

Cu XmcXayneqsS tUmnkv ]dbm {ianpXv X am kw`hnpXv \mw ImWpp. AXpsImv Yepw am hncnmw. Fm X h am bmZrnIamtbm kzm`mhnIamtbm ss\kKnIamtbm kw`hnpn. AhnsS am kw`hnpXv tUmnkv hyamnb t]mse "\nbXamb XncsSppIfneqsS Po ]q IS kv^pSw sNbvXpw' hcpp amfmWv. AsX X hcp am a\pjys\ FIvtW GPns IrXyhpw t_m[]qhhpw _pn]qhhpamb Bkq{XWneqsSbp CSs]SepI aqeamWv.

Krl]cn]me\s XmcXayw sNpXneqsS kwPmXamIpXv Y Fsnepw amw kw`hnWsapsn {]IrXn IrXyhpw t_m[, _pn]qhamb Bkq{XWneqsS CSs]Sp aqmw In (Third party)bmbn hnm _pnbpw t_m[hpap hyntbm hkvXpthm {]Xn`mktam BthXpv. krjvSn, Bkq{XWhmZsf \ymboIcnpXntepw AwKoIcnpXntepw tUmnkpw ]cnWmahnizmknIfpw kzm`mhnIambn ]cnWanp IuXpI ImgvNbmWnXneqsS ImWpXv. (Bkq{XWhmZspdnv tUmnkv ]pkvXIn N sNppv. hnjbw AhnsS N XpScmw). tUmnkpw ]cnWma hnizmknIfpw kaYnpXv, {]IrXn\n[mcWsa ]cnWmatZh\v YbpsS Poh\coXnI Xocpam\nm\pw, AXnenSs]Sm\pw AXns ham\hpw `mhnbpw \nWbnv Bhiyamb \S]Sn{Ia kzoIcnv Ysb amnadnv ]pXnb Pohn hKfmn ]cnhnnm\pw hym]nnm\pw \ne\nm\pap `mcn DchmZnhpw Ignhpap Bkq{XI\mbn amdpIbmWv {]IrXn!

Krl]cn]me\s kw_nv tUmnkv ]cnNbsSpp Nne DZmlcW \appw ]cnNbsSmw. ""Cu taJebnse Iaph (Funciers) sas kzchpw cq]`wKnbpw Inm\mbn ssa\m ]nIsf (Canaries) {_oUv sNmdpv. Impssa\I Xhnp Ie a \ndap IpcphnIfmWv. (Finch) ImWm A{X sasampan Xm\pw. {_oUam B ]nbn kw`hnp `n Dcnh\ hcpp hW hyXnbm\ kkqvaw ]npScpIbpw B \ndqn\npw ssa\m ]nbpsS t]cn AdnbsSp Hcp khntij a\ndw sXcsSppIbpw sNbvXp. AXns\ "ssI\dn a' (Canary yellow) FdnbsSpp. CsXmsbmsWnepw ssa\mnv B t]cp hoWXv sIbv\dn Zzo]pIfpsS t]cn\nmWv. AmsX KmetKmkv Zzo]pIfpsS (Galapagos Islands) Imcyn kw`hnXpt]mse sIbv\dnIfn\n {]kvXpX Zzo]n\v B t]cv hoWXv. kv]m\njv `mjbn Babvp ]Zn\nmWv KmetKmkn\v B t]cv hXv. ssa\m ]nI IqSpXepw AdnbsSpXv AhbpsS ]mns t]cnemWv. Cu Ignhpw kpjvSampXnepw a\pjy {_oUam \ ]v hlnnpv. Npv ASp]nSnp ]mSm Ignbp tdmfdpI (Rollers) DssS \nch[n ]mpImsc ]nIġnSbn\npw \mw hfnsbSpnpv.'' (51)

CXpt]mse henp\onb Ccw hmNIfm kpjvSamWv ]pkvXIw. a\pjy ssa\Isf {_oUp sNbvXnpv Fv ]dbpXv sImv AXv ]cnWman\p sXfnhmIp kq{XhmIyw Fsv IqSn hniZoIcntnbncnpp. Acw {iafpw ]pkvXInepv. ""DZym\ ]pjv]fpsS Imcynse t]mse Xġpapv s] t^kpIfpsS {_oUp sNbvsXSp B t^kpIsf IqSpX ]cnjvIcnpIbmWv t^UpIsf {_oUp sNp a\pjy sNbvXXv. AXv hgn tKmU t^kpIsf Innp amXrII DmpIbpw sNbvXp. AXmbXv s] t^kpI \Snb {_oUnns XpSbmWv a\pjy {_oUam \SnbXv. ChnsS GXm\pw Nne Dcnh\ hgnbp hyXnbm\w ]npSmWv CXv km[nsSpXv.(52) ChnsS tUmnkv ]dbpXv t^kpI CWIsf {_oUv sNbvsXSppIbpw XpSXv a\pjy GsSppIbpw ]ptcmKXnbntev \bnpIbpw sNbvsXmWv FmWv Acw Hcp ham\n\v Atlns ]ep sXfnhv Fv ]dbmXv sImv AXpw tIhew Dulw Xs.

Ir{Xna {_oUnns\pdnv hmNme\mIp tUmnkv ]e kkyfpw Ppfpw CWsb {_oUv sNppsmWv ]dbpXv. Ghpw BIjIamb B abnepIsf CW tNcen s] abnepI sXcsSppXp ImcWw, Ghpw kucyap B abnepI am{Xw AXnPohnpsapw BIjIamb ]qhp ]qh tImgnIsf ]nStmgn XncsSppXv aptJ\ ]qhamcnse ]qhns kucyw h[np h[np hcpsapw Atlw ]dbppv. Acw sXcsSppIfneqsS kucyw IqSpXep B abnepIfpsSbpw ]qh tImgnIfpsSbpw XeapdI \ne\npIbpw Amh CmsX BIpIbpw sNpsapw FgpXpp.

AXv t]mse a\pjy Ppfn CSs]v kz`mham hcppXns\pdnpw tUmnkv FgpXppv. Ipdpamcnepw Knn ayfnepw Acw am {]ISambXpw Atlw DZmlcnpp. tUmnkns hmpI

""sacpw (Tameness)AXsn AXv t]mse assnepw IgnhpI {]IrXn]camtbm Ir{Xnaamtbm Fs\ hmsSpmsaXns\n B[p\nI Imev BthiIcamb Hcp ]coWw \Snpv. tcma hym]mcn\v D]tbmKnm\mbn djy knh Pw_pIamnSbn (Russian silver foxes) \Snb Hcp ]cnioe\]XnbmWXv. \app ]mTw ]cnKWnptm Cu ]coWw {]Zm\w sNp Bthiw Ccnpp. KmlnI ]cn]me\w, {_oUnv sXcsSpns ]miz^e, {]IrXn \n[mcWhpw Ir{Xna \n[mcWhpw Xnep kam\XI Fnhsbn Umhn AdnXnpw a\nemnbXnpw D]cnbmb ImcyfmWv Cu ]mTw \apv e`yampXv.(53) Cu ]coWw \apv ]cnNbsSmw.

""hĸkv hĸkv (Vulpes vulpes) FdnbsSp ]cnNnXamb Nph Ipdpamcn \ndsshPmXyap Hcn\amWv djy knh Ipdp. at\mlcamb tcmaamWv AXns aqeyw h[nnpXv. djy P\nXI imkv{X\mb Znan{Xn _teyhv (Dimitri Balyaev) 1950 Ifn Hcp Ipdp ^mans(Fox farm)\SnpImc\mbn tPmen t\mnbncpp.''(54)

Znan{Xn _teyhv Ipdp\cn ^man (Fox farm) tPmen sNpXn\nSbn Isnb Imcysfmbncpp Fv IqSn a\nempXv DNnXambncnpw. ""h\yXbn Ignbp Ipdpamsc ssIImcyw sNpI A{X Ffpa. sacpw eyanv Ahsb t_m[]qhw {_oUv sNm\mWv _teyhv BZyw ]cn{ianXv. Ames GsXmcp kkyPohn {_oUsdbpw t]mse sXcsSpn\mbn {]IrXnZambn Xs e`yamIp hyXnbm\ NqjWw sNm\mWv Atlhpw Xp\nXv... IpdpIpn\v ssIbn Blmcw hv amSn hnfnpIbpw Ah hv Xnptm tXmfpw ]pdpsams Xn emfnpIbmbncpp AXnsemcp ]coWw...

sacpw eyanv tIhew Bdv XeapdI {_oUv sNbvXtmtgpw Ipdpam icnpw amdngnncpp. AtXmsS {_oUam B ]pXnb ImKdnv "Krl ]cn]me\n\v hnt[bamb Ipeo\' (Domestical elite) Fsmcp {]tXyI t]cpanp. apdpapdpv {ibmIjnm Ah ioenp. ]coWw \Sphsc \mbIsf t]mse aWnm\pw \m\psams X]ccmbncp Cu hn`mKn\v s]mXpsh a\pjycpambn ASpm \ Dkmlambncpp.''(55)

hfsc Bkq{XnXamb ]coWfneqsS hfp Ipdpamsc CWapXmm Ignp FXmWv Cu ]coWfnse BsIpI. a\pjys\ Im HmSnbIep a\pjyZrjvSn ]cn[nbn hcmsX ]emb\ Zqcw(Flight distance) ]menp Ipdpamsc AXns tcmaw DXv]mZnnpI F eytmsS sacpn hfp ^manemWv Cu ]coWw. `Wmhiyn\pw apw a\pjycpambn CWanm \mb, ]q, Im XpSnb Pp a\pjy\n\nvAhs A{Ian\nvHmSncs]Sm am{Xw AIew {inv {itbmsS CSs]SpIbpw `Ww tXSpIbpw sNpp. CXv a\pjytcmSv am{Xa ap PohnItfmSpw ]menpp. adp]v \nv {]XnIcWansn IqSpX IqSpX ASpv hcpp. Ahv `Whpw {]mYanI Bhiyfpw (CWtNcm\pw {]khnm\pw km\ ]cn]me\n\pw apap) Bhiy \nhlnpXpw a\pjy Xs. AhIfn Nnehsb t_m[]qhw CWnsbSpp. AXns\ ]cnWman\pw {]IrXn \n[mcWn\pap sXfnhmbn AhXcnnpIbmWv tUmnkv ChnsS sNpXv. a\pjyZrjvSnbn hcmsX ]emb\Zqcw ]menp Ipdpam a\pjy\pambn CWn FXmWtm sXfnhmsbSppXv. Ipdp\v a\pjys\ B{IanpI, sImesSppI F kz`mhw C FXv {]tXyIw ]cnKW\obamWv. Fm Xw Innbm a\pjys\ B{IanpIbpw sImp XnpIbpw sNp knwlw, ISph, ]pen XpSnb lnw{k Ppsf ]cnKWnpI. a\pjy t_m[]qhw AhIfn kpcnX ]emb\ Zpcw (Safe Flight distance) ]menpXn {inpp. Acw A{IaImcnIfmb lnw{k arKsf a\pjy Xs Xs {]bXv\neqsSbpw ]cnNcWneqsSbpw ]cnioe\neqsSbpw CWn sacpn FSppp Fv am{Xa AhIsf XfpsS sNm]Snv \nn ASnathe sNnpp FXv GsXmcmġpw AdnbmhpXs. GsXmcp kkv IqSmcfnsebpw apJy BIjWw Ccw lnw{k PpfpsS A`ymk {]IS\fmWv Ccw lnw{k arKfpsS A`ymk{]IS\ ImWm\pw BkzZnm\pw a\pjycnse `ocpfn `ocp t]mepw Xmdmhpp. 2000 Zp_mbn Hcp sibvJns hon AhnSps Poh\mc\mb kplrns\ ImWm t]mbXv adm\mhn. AhnSps ASpfbpw m^v AtmatUj\pw tN tmnemWv t]mbXv. AhnsS sXmgnemfnIfpsS IqsS asmcp Xmakmc\pw Dmbcpp. B Athmknsb ]cnNcnm Cymmc\mb Hcp ]cnNmcI\pw. B Athmkn AhnSps a\pjycpsS IqsS AhcpsS s_UvdqapIfnepw kzoIcWapdnbnepw ASpf kapbnepw Hcp IpSpw_mwKs t]mse kzX{ambn \Spp. Fmbvtmgpw ]cnNmcI Iqn\pmhn. B hn. sF. ]n amcpa kmm ]pnpenbmbncpp. BZy ImgvNbn A]w `bw tXmn Fnepw ]noSv IuXpIhpw hmkeyhpambn ]cnWanp AXnt\mSp hnImcw.

Ccw A{IaImcnIfmb lnw{k Pp t]mepw a\pjy\pambn CWn klhntmsS Pohnp ImgvNI HsX. A{IaImcnbm a\pjys\ t]Snp Ipdps\ CWnsbSpXv hnhcnv t]PpI \ndXpsImv am{Xw ]cnWman\v sXfnhmIn. kl{km_vZfmbn ImparKamb B\ a\pjys hml\hpw `mchmlI\pw bpapWnbnse t]mcmfnbpamWv. AsXmpw ]cnWmasbpw {]IrXn \n[mcWsbpw \ymboIcnpIbpw sXfnbnpIbpan Fv Xncndnbm hIXncnhnmhcmtWm tUmnkpw ]cnWma aX hnizmknIfpw!

asmcpZmlcWw tUmnkn\nv """\mb' Fv \manv hnfnp arKw a\pjy Krl]cn]me\neqsS amna dn sNmb BsWp Rm ]dp. ]s, Cu hnjbw \mbbpsS ]cnWmas kw_n BthiIcamb knmns shfnn hnebncpt _m[yX IqSn F\npv. ChnsSbpw tdm_v tIm]nwKdmWv hyambn Imcy \n[mcWw sNbvXnpXv. \mb ]cnWmasa Bibw tIhew Ir{Xna ]cnWman am{Xambn ]cnanXsSpm\mhn. sNmb a\pjys Bhiyġ\pkcWambn {]IrXn\n[mcWns hgnmcbneqsS kzbw ]cphsXns hnjbhpw AhnsSbpv. AXmbXv \mw Nne sNmbIsf \mbIfmnbXv t]mse ap Nne sNmbI t_m[]qhamsX kzbw \mbbmbn ]cnWannpv. \mbbpsS BZy Krl]cn]me\n ]eXpw sNmbI kzbw kzoIcn Krl]cn]me\amWv (Selfdomestication) Ir{Xna \n[mcWa adnv \n[mcWamWnhnsS a[yX hlnXv. Ir{Xna \n[mcWns D]IcWsnbpsS ta \mw ssIshpXn\v hfsc apv Xs bmsXmcphn[ a\pjy CSs]SepanmsX Xs sNmbI "\mp\mb' (Village dog) Bbn kzbsa Krl]cn]me\n\v hnt[bamnbncpp. Cu Ln\ptijamWv a\pjy Cu \mp\mbIsf Hmtcmmbn kzoIcnv XpS ]cn]me\neqsS AhbpsS cq]`mh amnadnXv.(56)

\mb ]cnWmas Ipdnv Hcp]msSgpXnbnpv tUmnkv. AXv ]cnWma aX ^enXambn BkzZnpXn bmsXmcp ssha\kyhpw th. \mb {]IrXn \n[mcWneqsSbpw Ir{Xna \n[mcWneqsSbpw Krl]cn]me\neqsSbpw \mbbmbn Xs ]cnWanp Fv KthjWmI ]coWneqsS sXfnbnpIbmWv tUmnkv ChnsS \nhlnXv. C\nbpapv Ccw ]cnWmasfnhpI. thWsan _kv, _kmbpw hnam\w hnam\ambpw sXv sXmbpw Ddpv Ddpmbpw ]cnWanXns sXfnhpI AhXcnnpXv GsXnepw \nkmcmc\. Cv temIv PohnncnpXn Ghpw DX\pw HmIvkvt^mUv bqWnthgvknn ap s{]m^kdpamb ]cnWmahpw \ncoizchmZhpw sXfnbnm\pw kaYnm\pw m]nm\pw Xs kabw ]cn]qWambn \onh dnmUv tUmnkv F \sp PohnbmWv.(57) FXv Gsd Bthiw ]IcpXmWv. temIv Pohnncnphcn AXypX\mb ]cnWma aX {]t_m[Is ]\nv Ccw Hcp ^enXw temIw BkzZntXpv.

Krl]cn]me\neqsS kkyfnepw sNSnIfnepw amw kw`hnpp. FXmWtm {]IrXn \n[mcWn\pw AXphgn ]cnWman\pw sXfnhmbn ]pkvXIns BZy`mKv AhXcnnpXv. Krl ]cn]me\w Ppkky temIv F{Xtmfw amw hcppw Fv IqSn hnebncpmw. DZmlcWn\v Db tXmXn a[pcw e`np Icnv XncsSpv hfnsbSpm a[pcw ]cn[nItfXpanmsX h[npsImtbncnptam? AXvt]mse Fpcphmb tNmfns FbpXvmZ\ tijn h[nv tNmfpcphnse FbpsS Afhv 100 iXam\ntem \qdp iXam\n\Sptm Fptam. CsmWv hkvXpX. GXv kkysbmbmepw AXns Izmfnn h[nnm\p {iaw Hcp ]cn[nbnsenbm \npw. GsXmcp PohnbpsS Ahbpw AXpt]mse Xs. DZmlcWn\v Hcp {]tXyI tcmKns\Xnsc {]Xntcm[w t\SpI Asn {]tXyI ImbnItijn hfnsbSppI XpSnb coXnbn Hcp Pp(hKw) ]ptcmKXn t\SpXn\pw CXpt]mse ]cn[nbpw ]cnanXnbpapv. tUmnkv CXv hyampp.

""Cnt\mbn FIvkv]ncnsav tj\nse Irjn imkv{X hfsc ]t, AXmbXv 1896 apX sNbvXphcp Hcp ]coWamWnXv... BZy {Km^nIv Nn{Xn tNmf hnpIfnse FbpsS Afhns\ kw_n IWpI cv Ir{Xna tcJIfpsS klmbtmsS Nn{XoIcnncnpp. Hcp tcJ IqSnb FbpsS kmn[yhpw atXv Ipd kmn[yhpw {]Zm\w sNpp. CXv icnpw \Ss ]coWw XsbmWv. t_m[]qhap cv CSs]Sep ^eamWv \manhnsS XmcXayw sNpXv. hyXymkw hfsc \mSIobamsWv am{Xa AXv {ItaW h[nphcnIbpw sNpp. apIfntep t]mpw Xmtgp t]mpw Ahkm\w Hcp kaXpe\mhbnembn CmXmIpXpw ImWmw. ImcWw Ipd F kmn[yw ]qPyn t]mIm km[ya. IqSnb kmn[yw hfsc kv]jvSamb ImcWfm As\bmIpIbpan.''(58)

Cu {]kvXmh\bn\nv sNSnIsf Krl]cn]me\neqsS hfsc HuXyntepw AXpt]mse Gsd A[aXzntepw \bnm km[ya Fv ]Tnnpp. AXpt]mse FenIfn \Snb Hcp ]coWhpw IqSnb tUmnkv hniZoIcnpp.

""Ir{Xna \n[mcWns bYmY in shfnhmp asmcp et_mddn ]coWw IqSn t\mmw. asmcpXcn \s ]eXpw ]Tnnp Hcp ]coWw XsbmWXv.'' ""...Zbns\Xnscbp {]Xntcm[tijnbpsS ASnm\n GXmv 17 XeapdIfn FenIsf sXcsSppXv kw_n IWmWv. F{XImew Asn F{X Znhkw FenI Zbn\nv apcmbncpp FXns\ Bkv]ZamnbmWv ChnsS kabw {IaoIcnncnpXv. ]coWns XpSn Zb `ojWnbnmXncp icmicn ImeLw 100 Znhkambncpp. GItZiw 12Hmfw XeapdIfn \Snb sXcsSpneqsS Zbanm ImeLw GXmv \mencntbm AXne[nItam Bbn ZoLnnm\mbn. hopw CXn\v hn]coXambn Zbw ]nSns]SpXv F{Xbpw t\csbmm\mbn sXcsSpv \Snb FenIsf {]Xn\n[oIcnp asmcp tcJbpw hcnpv.''(59) ChnsS aqjnIamcpsS Zbw Xosc CmXmm\pw Ghpw ]mcaynsenm\pap ]coWnepw ^e{]m]vXn a[yamhbn \npIbmWv FXv Gsd {itbamWv.

Cu cp et_mddn ]coWfn\npw Hcp Imcyw hyamhpp. Bkq{XnXhpw t_m[]qhhpambn kkytemIpw PptemIpw \Snb ]coWfn \nv Pphmbmepw kkyambmepw Ahbvv ]cn[nbpw ]cnanXnbpw adnISp Hcp amhpw km[yasmWv. Cu ]coW ^e IqSmsX Ccnep amfpsS ]cn[nsb hniZoIcnp DZmlcWfpw tUmnkns ]pkvXIn Gsdbpv. AXntev t]mIpn. Ir{Xna \n[mcWneqsSbpw Krl ]cn]me\neqsSbpw Bkq{XnXhpw _pn]qhhpw \nbXambn CSs]np ^ew a[yamh \ne\npp FXn \nv Hcp Pohnpw Hcp kv]ojnkn\pw asmcp Pohntbm kv]ojntkm Bbn ]cnWanm km[yasv sXfnbnpp Cu ]coWw Bkq{XnXhpw t_m[]qhhpw \nbXamb amKfp]tbmKnv \Snbnpw hntijnv amsfmpapmIpn Fn {]IrXnbn ss\kKnIambn bmsXmcp _mly CSs]SepanmsX GsXnepw Pohntbm ssPhhKtam Fs\bmWv asmcp Pohntbm ssPhhKtam Bbn ]cnWanpI Fp sXfnbnpI t]mbnv hnizknpI?! ]s ]cnWma hnizmknI As\ hnizknpw {]Ncnnpw sImtbncnpw. ImcWw ssZhkrjvSn Fhv Nnnm t]mepw AhcpsS Almca\phZnn.

Ref:

29 bpnZi\w (]cnjvIcn ]Xnv) No^v FUn bp. Iem\mY, F. Sn tImhq {Sv, tImgntmSv, t]Pv 1

30 AtX ]pkvXIw apJhpc t]Pv 5, ]pdwN

31 www.en.wikipedia.org/niyandarthal

32 `qanbnse Ghpw almb Zriyhnkvabw ]cnWmans sXfnhpI: Un. chnN{ Un. kn _pIvkv, t]Pv 49

33 AtX ]pkvXIw t]Pv 49

34 www.wikipedia.org/plato

35 www.wikipedia.org/anceanteagypt

36 www.wikipedia.org/indus_wallycivilization

37 www.wikipedia.org/neolithic_europe

38 bpnZi\w t]Pv 93

39 AtX ]pkvXIw, t]Pv 1

40 \mkvXnI\mb ssZhw: dnmUv tUmnkns temIw, kn. chnN{, Un. kn. _pIvkv, t]Pv 202

41 AtX ]pkvXIw, t]Pv 200

42 AtX ]pkvXIw, t]Pv 209

43 `qanbnse Ghpw almb Zriyhnkvabw: ]cnWmans sXfnhpI: t]Pv 52, 53

44 AtX ]pkvXIw t]Pv 53, 54

45 AtX ]pkvXIw t]Pv 54

46 AtX ]pkvXIw t]Pv 56, 57

47 AtX ]pkvXIw t]Pv 57

48 AtX ]pkvXIw t]Pv 57

49 AtX ]pkvXIw t]Pv 58

50 AtX ]pkvXIw t]Pv 68

51 AtX ]pkvXIw t]Pv 91, 92

52 AtX ]pkvXIw t]Pv 91

53 AtX ]pkvXIw t]Pv 112

54 AtX ]pkvXIw t]Pv 112

55 AtX ]pkvXIw t]Pv 112, 113

56 AtX ]pkvXIw t]Pv 108,109

57 AtX ]pkvXIw t]Pv 7

58 AtX ]pkvXIw t]Pv 104, 105

59 AtX ]pkvXIw t]Pv 105

(XpScpw)         

 

teJ\:
Gimpeleinu
Gimpeleinu

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A\kv(d) \nthZ\w: Xncpta\n(kz) Acpfn: X\nnjvSsSpXv Xs ktlmZc\p thnbpw CjvSsSp Xphsc \nfnsemcmfpw kXyhnizm knbmhpIbn. (_pJmcn. 1.2.12)

A_qlpssdd(d) \nthZ\w: \_n(kz) Acpfn: [\w FXp `uXnI hn`hns h\h. Fm [\w FXp a\ns kwXr]vXnbmWv. (_pJmcn. 8.76.453)

 
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atXXcXzw, am\hnIX, Ckvemw
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""Poht\msS `qanbn Ccnp tm aZyw IgnmXncnp a\pjy acnv Acq]nIfmbn sNptm BtLmjnm aZy pgI HgpIp A_vImcn tIm{SmdpsS Xentev Amsb Xcw Xmgvp samlZmWv, A\pbmbnIġv BZcWob\mb hyn. ChnsS bpw samlZns Akw_w AmbpsS Xebnembn. Cu hmpI samlZv aZyelcn bnembncnmw FgpXnbXv.'' aebm fnse Hcp {]apJ tmKdpsS IamWnXv. IqSnmgvbneqsS Dcw {]Xonpp.

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hnip ]mX : A_qAao
Gimpeleinu
mlp AhXcnn, thZ{Kٯnep Imcy adp shpIbpw, AXnp hnebmbn Xpamb t\ t\SnsbSpp Ibpw sNphcmtcm Ah XfpsS hbdpIfn Xnp \ndpXv \cImnbmsX asmpa. Dbnsgpt]ns \mfn Amlp AhtcmSv kwkmcnpItbm (]m]fn \nv)Ahsc kwipcmpItbm sNpIbn. Ahv thZ\tbdnb inbpmbncnpIbpw sNpw. kmKn\v ]Icw ZpamKhpw ]m]tamN\n\v ]Icw inbpw hmnbhcmIpp Ah. \cIin A\p`hnpXn Ahssmcp abmWv! (2:174,175)

temIcnXmhmb Amlphn s amK\ntZi A\pkcnv Pohnm\p A\p{Klw alm b ku`mKyamWv. kXyns ]v Ddv \nm\pw ssZhnI amKZi\w e`nm\pw B{KlnpIbpw {]mYnpIbpw sNptXmsSmw kmKn \nv ZpamKntev hgpXn t]mImXncnm Pm{KX ]mentXpapv. \_n(kz) hgntISn \nv ctXSpIbpw kmKn\mbn {]mYnpIbpw ]WnsbSppIbpw sNbvXncpp.

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hmb\mcpsS kwhmZw

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hopw Nne eu PnlmZv "IYI'
aymam hne]npp...
atXXcXzns t]cn "kmwkvImcnI ]cZqjW'tfm?
UqWns Ckvemamtjw \Ip ]mTw

XpSv hmbnpI   

 
 
 
 
 
   
Editor
M.Mohammed Akbar,
Niche of Truth, P.B No:1981,
Vyttila, Cochin-19.
E-mail: editor@snehasamvadam.com
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